Objects from Traces

Archaeological excavations have enabled us to find out what objects our ancestors made and used. Many of them had multiple purposes and they all reveal fundamental aspects regarding the men and women who inhabited these lands. How and what they ate, how they dressed, how they fought, how they were distinguished socially, what they believed in…

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Objects from Traces

<p><span>Number: </span>1</p><p><span>Object: </span>Jug</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries V-I B.C.E.</p><p><span>Description: </span>Upper part of a hand-made, jug-type recipient. Printed decoration consisting of horizontal “S” alternated with three horizontal incised lines. 
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Ceramic</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Recipient</p> <p><span>Number: </span>10</p><p><span>Object: </span>Knife</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries VIII-VI B.C.E.</p><p><span>Description: </span>Curved knife. One of its sides has a curved edge. Its hilt, probably made out of bone or horn, has not been preserved.  
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Metal/Iron</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Weapon</p> <p><span>Number: </span>11</p><p><span>Object: </span>Pot</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Century II B.C.E.</p><p><span>Description: </span>Hand-made cooking recipient with soot fragments due to its exposure to fire. </p><p><span>Material: </span>Pottery</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Recipient</p> <p><span>Number: </span>12</p><p><span>Object: </span>Touchstone </p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Iron Age II (400-60 B.C.E.)</p><p><span>Description: </span>Item made out of lutite stone. Its use was linked to the working and finishing of precious metals, such as gold or silver. 
Photo: COV
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Stone</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Tool</p> <p><span>Number: </span>13</p><p><span>Object: </span>Earring</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries II-I B.C.E.</p><p><span>Description: </span>Earring with straight edges made up of 4 circular wires welded together and placed in a concentric arrangement. It has a triangular attachment. 
Photography: OGV-XLA (Incipit, CSIC)

</p><p><span>Material: </span>Metal/Gold</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Personal adornment</p> <p><span>Number: </span>14</p><p><span>Object: </span>Molten metal in the form of a “cake”</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Century I</p><p><span>Description: </span>Golden “cake” originating from the casting process undergone by this metal to make different objects. 
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Metal/gold</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Metal</p> <p><span>Number: </span>15</p><p><span>Object: </span>Anthropomorphic sculpture</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries II-I B.C.E.</p><p><span>Description: </span>Schematic representation of an anthropomorphic figure. The eyes, nose and mouth are outlined. It has been interpreted as the schematic figure of a warrior or image of a settlement protector. 
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Stone</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Symbolic element</p> <p><span>Number: </span>16</p><p><span>Object: </span>Bowl</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Century IV B.C.E.</p><p><span>Description: </span>Flat-bottomed bowl with decoration on the exterior of the bottom. The placement of the decoration and the fact it shows no signs of wear, as well as the context in which it appeared, suggests it was used for rituals and that it was a foundational offering.

</p><p><span>Material: </span>Ceramic</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Recipient</p> <p><span>Number: </span>17</p><p><span>Object: </span>Touchstone</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Iron Age II (400-60 B.C.E.)</p><p><span>Description: </span>Item made from lutita stone with stylised body in the shape of a sickle or half moon. It has an orifice at one of the ends to fit the suspension mount. The metal suspension hoop, made up of a bracket and a pin, both cast in bronze, have been preserved. Its use is associated with the working and finishing of precious metals such as gold or silver. 
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Stone/Shale, Metal/Bronze</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Tool</p> <p><span>Number: </span>18</p><p><span>Object: </span>Cauldron with rivets</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries IV-II B.C.E.</p><p><span>Description: </span>Large pot, intentionally distorted by being folded back several times on itself to take up as little space as possible. It is a hoard of great economic value. Originally, this piece would have had great symbolic significance, as its typology would suggest it was associated with ritual feasts.  
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Metal/Bronze</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Symbolic element</p> <p><span>Number: </span>19</p><p><span>Object: </span>Dolium</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Century I B.C.E.</p><p><span>Description: </span>Large recipient for storing cereal, possibly. It has a flat base and a globular shape, with four small handles on the upper part of the main body. 
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Ceramic</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Recipient</p> <p><span>Number: </span>2</p><p><span>Object: </span>Palstave axe</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries VIII-V B.C.E.</p><p><span>Description: </span>Palstave axe with two lateral rings. Remains of lead were preserved in the rings and lateral burrs of the bivalve mould in which it was made. </p><p><span>Material: </span>Metal/Copper alloy, pewter and lead</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Weapons and tools</p> <p><span>Number: </span>20</p><p><span>Object: </span>Bowl</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries I B.C.E.- I</p><p><span>Description: </span>Bowl with millefiori decoration, a technique that consisted of joining strips of opaque glass to form a flower and heating until fused. Cut into sections which were joined to the glass mass and placed in a mould, it was put in an oven until it fused to form a bowl.    
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Glass</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Recipient</p> <p><span>Number: </span>21</p><p><span>Object: </span>Amphora</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries I B.C.E.-II</p><p><span>Description: </span>Recipient for the transportation and storage of liquids such as wine, oil or sauces, mainly. Its shape, ending in a pivot, is designed to facilitate its loading onto a boat. It is a Haltern 70 amphora and was made in the pottery workshops of Betica (Andalucía, today). 
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Ceramic</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Recipient</p> <p><span>Number: </span>22</p><p><span>Object: </span>Torques</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries II-I B.C.E.</p><p><span>Description: </span>Globular element decorated with intertwined spirals with a filigree design and flat terminal in triskelion form. It is made with fine thread and granular gold and is bordered by a filigree rim, also in gold. 
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Metal/Gold</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Personal adornment</p> <p><span>Number: </span>23</p><p><span>Object: </span>Head</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries II-I B.C.E.</p><p><span>Description: </span>Schematic representation of an anthropomorphic head. The hair or helmet is outlined and the eyes, nose, mouth and ears perfectly marked. 
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Stone/Granite</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Symbolic element</p> <p><span>Number: </span>24</p><p><span>Object: </span>Dagger</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries VIII-II B.C.E.</p><p><span>Description: </span>Dagger or short sword with a symmetric edge and central ridge, significantly eroded on one side. The hilt and the rivets of the grip have been preserved, which indicates that it could have been made of perishable materials, such as wood or horns. Given certain similarities, it could be associated with eastern Mediterranean productions. 
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Metal</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Weapons</p> <p><span>Number: </span>25</p><p><span>Object: </span>Bowl</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries I-II</p><p><span>Description: </span>Hispanic Terra sigillata from the pottery workshops of Tritium Magallum (Tricio, in La Rioja, today). It is the base of bowl or cup of what is considered luxury ceramics from the Roman Age. On the exterior of the bottom, an inscription with the word PEREGRINVS, who could have been the owner or user of the piece, has been preserved.  
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Ceramic</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Recipient</p> <p><span>Number: </span>26</p><p><span>Object: </span>Bowl</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries I-II</p><p><span>Description: </span>Small bowl from the pottery workshops of Bracara Augusta (Braga, Portugal). It is a fine pottery which imitates forms of terra sigillata and has roulette decoration. One of its defining characteristics is its colour, a purified and decanted cream paste. 
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Ceramic</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Recipient</p> <p><span>Number: </span>27</p><p><span>Object: </span>Robed female figure</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries I-II</p><p><span>Description: </span>Robed female figure. The toga has large vertical folds down to the feet, which are bare. The robe is gathered in the left hand and falls to the knee. The hands are broken and the right knee bent. In the rear, on the shoulder, there is a rectangular orifice which would have served as a suspension element and an open space at the base used as a fitting. 
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Metal</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Symbolic element</p> <p><span>Number: </span>28</p><p><span>Object: </span>Mercury</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries I-II</p><p><span>Description: </span>A very worn head covered with petasus (helmet), showing the face with the eyes and nose marked. He carries a chlamys hanging over his left shoulder and falling down to knee height. The left leg is broken at the knee and the right at the ankle.  In his hands he would have been carrying a marsupium (bag) and the Caduceus (symbol of trade), both symbols of the god Mercury. 
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Metal</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Symbolic element</p> <p><span>Number: </span>29</p><p><span>Object: </span>Torques</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries II-I B.C.E.</p><p><span>Description: </span>Small rigid bar cast in silver or lead, with an almost circular section and covered in gold strips. It has a band that is decorated with incisions in the form of radial strips and a thin wire in the form of a spiral which converges in a central globule. 
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Metal</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Personal adornment</p> <p><span>Number: </span>3</p><p><span>Object: </span>Spear head</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries V-II B.C.E.</p><p><span>Description: </span>Pointed spear head with ribbed central section</p><p><span>Material: </span>Metal/Bronze</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Weapons and tools</p> <p><span>Number: </span>30</p><p><span>Object: </span>Coin</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>1157-1188</p><p><span>Description: </span>Coin minted during the reign of Ferdinand II of León depicting the transfer of the body of the Apostle. 
The front shows a rampant lion facing right and, behind it, a rod ending in a cross that cuts across the inscription + FERNANDVS REX inside a dotted rim.
On the back, a boat on which the body of the Apostle James lies on the right, with the heads of two of his disciples at his feet. In the centre, a rod that ends in a cross that cuts across the inscription S (ancti) IA-COBI inside a dotted rim.
Photo: Museum of Pilgrimages and Santiago (Xunta de Galicia Museum Collection)

</p><p><span>Material: </span>Metal/Copper and silver alloy</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Coin</p> <p><span>Number: </span>31</p><p><span>Object: </span>Altar</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries IV-V</p><p><span>Description: </span>Altar with a troncoconical base, ending in a triangle, with a recast triangle in the centre, a small focus at the top end and a pulvinus on each side. Under the two rectangles is an inscription which reads Deo Lari Bero Breo aram pos(ui o uit) prol sae(ute).
Photo: Monika Perkovic, DAI Madrid</p><p><span>Material: </span>Stone/Granite</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Symbolic element</p> <p><span>Number: </span>32</p><p><span>Object: </span>Alabastron</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries V-IV B.C.E.</p><p><span>Description: </span>Upper part of a recipient for storing liquids, possibly perfume, decorated with geometrical lines in blue and yellow. It comes from the Greek island of Rhodes. 
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Glass</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Recipient</p> <p><span>Number: </span>4</p><p><span>Object: </span>Zoomorphic fibula</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Century I</p><p><span>Description: </span>Fibula made in a bivalve mould representing two half-bodied, mirror-imaged lions, between whose front paws lies the head of a helmeted warrior and of a bovine, respectively. The pin has not been preserved. </p><p><span>Material: </span>Metal/Bronze</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Personal adornment</p> <p><span>Number: </span>5</p><p><span>Object: </span>Coin</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>14-37 B.C.E.</p><p><span>Description: </span>Minted denarius from the time of the Emperor Tiberius. The front shows the bust of the Emperor and the back a seated goddess Victoria. 
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Metal/Silver</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Coin</p> <p><span>Number: </span>6</p><p><span>Object: </span>Earring</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries II-III</p><p><span>Description: </span>Small hollow hoop linked to the suspension system via rolled wire also used to hang it from the ear. There is a decoration where the earring meets the suspension system.
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Metal/Gold</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Personal adornment</p> <p><span>Number: </span>7</p><p><span>Object: </span>Fíbula</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries V-IV B.C.E.</p><p><span>Description: </span>Navicella-type fibula in the shape of a typical Mediterranean boat. The pin has not been preserved. 
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Metal/Bronze</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Personal adornment</p> <p><span>Number: </span>8</p><p><span>Object: </span>Askos</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Century II B.C.E.</p><p><span>Description: </span>Red ochre paste recipient with geometrical decoration in reddish tones. It could possibly have come from the pottery workshops of Ebusus (Ibiza, as we know it today). 
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Pottery</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Recipient</p> <p><span>Number: </span>9</p><p><span>Object: </span>Acorns</p><p><span>Chronology: </span>Centuries II-I B.C.E.</p><p><span>Description: </span>Series of carbonised acorns found in one of the site’s storage areas. 
</p><p><span>Material: </span>Organic</p><p><span>Typology: </span>Food</p>